Morphological Study on the Extrahepatic Biliary Duct System of the Camel (Camelus Dromedarius)

Rasha Siddig Ahmed, Ali Bashir Abdalla

Abstract


The extrahepatic bile duct system of the camel was studied grossly, histology and histochemically. Specimens of the liver with pancreas attached, together with the cranial duodenal flexure of ten adult dromedary camels were used in this study. There was no common hepatic duct due to the absence of the gallbladder in the camel. The bile duct was partially embedded within the dorsal border of the pancreas and at its terminal course in the pancreatic tissue; it was joined by the main pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic duct before it entered the cranial duodenal flexure, about 20-25 cm caudal to the pylorus. The hepatopancreatic duct penetrated the duodenal wall obliquely, and passed for 2 to 3 cm before it opened by an oval orifice into the lumen of the duodenum. No evidence of a major duodenal papilla. Microscopically, the extrahepatic bile ducts of the camel were characterized by a wide lumen and folded mucosa which contained mucous glands. The ducts were lined with simple columnar epithelium of tall cells and surrounded by dense connective tissue mainly collagenous fibers. The wall of the bile duct contained no muscle fibers and there were no circular muscle fibers in the terminal portion of the duct that could be construed to represent a sphincter. The epithelium lining both the ducts and glands showed PAS-positive material at their apical portion and luminal borders, respectively.


Keywords


Dromedary; bile duct; hepatopancreatic duct; morphology.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdalla, O. and Sack, W.O. (1985). The choledochoduodenal junction in sheep and goat. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia. 14: 6-14.

Amselgruber, W. (1986). Course and opening of the pancreatic duct and its branches in the goat. Anatomica Histologica Embryologia, 15, 193-204.

Bloom, W. and Fawcett, D.W. (1986). A Textbook of Histology. Eleventh Edition. W.B. Saunders. Company Philadelphia and London.

Chiodi, V. (1937). Structure of the bile duct in domestic animals. Clinical Veterinary, Milano. 60: 303-321.

Chiodi, V. (1937). Structure of the bile duct in domestic animals. Clinical Veterinary, Milano, 60, 381-398.

Culling, C.F.A. (1974). Handbook of Histopathological and Histochemical Techniques. Third Edition, Butterworths. London. Boston.

Didio, L.J.A., and Boyden, E.A. (1962). The choledochoduodenal junction in the horse. A study of the musculature around the end of the bile and pancreatic ducts in a species without a gall bladder. Anatomical Record, 143, 61-69.

Drury, R.A.B,. and Wallington, E.A. (1980). Carleton's Histological Technique. Fifth Edition. Oxford University Press. New York. Toronto.

Dyce, K.M., and Wensing, C.J.G. (1971). Essentials of Bovine Anatomy. Utrecht. Academische Paperback. A. Oosthoek's Vitgevers Maatschappy. N.N.

Dyce, K.M., Sack, W.O., and Wensing, C.J.G. (1987). Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy. W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia. London. Toronto.

Hegazi, A.E. (1954). The liver of the camel as revealed by macroscopic and microscopic examinations. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 15, 444-446.

Mahour, G.H., Wakim, D.G., Ferris, D.O., and Soule, E.H. (1967). The common bile duct after cholecytectomy. Annals of Surgery, 166, 964-967.

Mahour, G.H., Wakim, K.G., Soule, E.H., and Ferris, D.O. (1968). Effects of cholecystectomy on the biliary ducts in the dog. Archives of Surgery, Chicago, 97, 570-574.

Mcminn, R.M.H., and Kugler, J.H. (1961). The glands of the bile and pancreatic ducts. Autoradiographic and histochemical studies. Journal of Anatomy, 95, 1-11.

Miller, M.E., Christensen, G.C., and Evans, H.E., (1964). Anatomy of the Dog. W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia. London.

Mostafa, M.S., Aly, M.A., Ammar, S., and Aly, A.E. (1981). Topography, morphology and duct system of the pancreas of the camel. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 10, 9-11.

Nagpal, S.K., Sudhakar, L.S., Singh, G., Dhingra, L.D., and Singh, Y. (1985). Gross morphology of the liver of camel (Camelus dromedarius). Indian-Journal of Animal Science, 55,996-1001.

Nickel, R., Schummer, A., and Seiferle, E. (1973). The Viscera of the Domestic Mammals. Translation and Revision by W.O. Sack. Verlag Paul Parey. Berlin, Hamburg.

Ouhsine, A., and Zguigal, H. (1983). External conformation and lobation of the liver of the dromedary. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 12, 25-32.

Radmanesh, H. (1974). Choledochoduodenal junction in the dromedary. Acta Anatomica, 90, 507-513.

Romanes, G.J. (1986). Gunningham's Manual of Practical Anatomy. Volume 2: Thorax and Abdomen. Fifteenth Edition. ELBS with Oxford University Press.

Saad, H.S. (1999). Some Morphological Studies on the Pancreas of the Camel (Camelus dromedarius). M.V.Sc. Thesis, University of Khartoum.

Sisson, S., and Grossman, J.D. (1975). The Anatomy of the Domestic Animals. Fifth Edition. Volumes I and II. W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia, London, Toronto.

Smuts, M.M.S., and Bezuidenhout, A.I (1987). Anatomy of the Dromedary. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Snell, R.S. (2000). Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students. Sixth Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia. Baltimore. New York. London.

Stinson, A.L.W., and Lots Calhoun, M. (1981). Digestive System. In: Textbook of Veterinary Histology. Dellmann, H.D. and Brown, E.M. (eds). Second Edition. Lea and Febiger Philadelphia.

Taha, A.A.M., and Abdel Magied, E.M. (1998). Anatomy of the pancreas of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 5, 57-60.

Vodovar, N., Flanzy, J., and Francois, A.C. (1964). The small intestine of the pig: 1. Dimensions in relation to age and weight, studies of the junction of the bile-pancreatic duct. Annales de Biologie Animale Biochimie et Biophysique, 4, 27-34.

Wass, W.M. (1965). The duct system of the bovine and pocrine pancreas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 26, 276-272.

Wilson, R.T. (1984). The Camel. Longman Group Ltd.

Zimmermann, A. (1934). The comparative anatomy of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Arch. Wiss. Parkt. Tierheilk, 68, 112-125.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.